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霧霾天氣是怎么形成的?

霧(wu)霾(mai)是霧(wu)和霾(mai)的(de)組合詞。因為空氣質量的(de)惡化(hua),陰(yin)霾(mai)天氣現象出(chu)現增多,危害加重。

中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)國(guo)不(bu)(bu)(bu)少地區(qu)把陰(yin)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)天(tian)(tian)(tian)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)現(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)象(xiang)并入霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)一(yi)(yi)起(qi)作(zuo)為(wei)(wei)(wei)災害性(xing)天(tian)(tian)(tian)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)預警預報。統(tong)稱(cheng)(cheng)為(wei)(wei)(wei)“霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)天(tian)(tian)(tian)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)”。二(er)氧化硫、氮氧化物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)和(he)(he)(he)可(ke)吸入顆(ke)粒(li)(li)(li)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)這(zhe)三項是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)主(zhu)要組(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng),前(qian)兩者為(wei)(wei)(wei)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)態(tai)污(wu)(wu)(wu)染(ran)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu),最(zui)后(hou)一(yi)(yi)項顆(ke)粒(li)(li)(li)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)才是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)重(zhong)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)天(tian)(tian)(tian)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)污(wu)(wu)(wu)染(ran)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)罪魁(kui)禍首(shou)。它們與(yu)(yu)(yu)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)結(jie)(jie)(jie)合在(zai)(zai)一(yi)(yi)起(qi),讓天(tian)(tian)(tian)空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)瞬間(jian)變得灰(hui)蒙蒙的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。顆(ke)粒(li)(li)(li)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)英(ying)文縮寫(xie)為(wei)(wei)(wei)PM,北京監測(ce)(ce)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)PM10,也就(jiu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)直(zhi)(zhi)徑(jing)小于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)10微(wei)米(mi)(mi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)污(wu)(wu)(wu)染(ran)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)顆(ke)粒(li)(li)(li)。這(zhe)種(zhong)顆(ke)粒(li)(li)(li)本身既是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)一(yi)(yi)種(zhong)污(wu)(wu)(wu)染(ran)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu),又是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)重(zhong)金(jin)屬、多環芳烴(jing)等有(you)(you)(you)(you)毒物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)質的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)載體(ti)。城市(shi)(shi)有(you)(you)(you)(you)毒顆(ke)粒(li)(li)(li)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)來(lai)源:首(shou)先是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)汽(qi)(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)相(xiang)關信息請問從緬甸茵萊湖到仰光(guang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)班車(che)(che)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情(qing)況?有(you)(you)(you)(you)坐(zuo)...請問有(you)(you)(you)(you)往返華(hua)(hua)欣與(yu)(yu)(yu)清邁的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)直(zhi)(zhi)達(da)車(che)(che)嗎(ma)?有(you)(you)(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)話請...求(qiu)解啊(a)尼泊爾博卡拉可(ke)以(yi)坐(zuo)大(da)(da)(da)巴(ba)到新德里(li)(li)嗎(ma)?貴陽客(ke)車(che)(che)站有(you)(you)(you)(you)車(che)(che)去黃果樹和(he)(he)(he)荔(li)波(bo)(bo)嗎(ma)?求(qiu)助啊(a),仰光(guang)機(ji)場(chang)附近(jin)哪里(li)(li)有(you)(you)(you)(you)汽(qi)(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)票售賣點?...馬德里(li)(li)市(shi)(shi)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心有(you)(you)(you)(you)沒有(you)(you)(you)(you)可(ke)以(yi)到outlet的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)班...我想知(zhi)道從吳哥到胡志明市(shi)(shi)有(you)(you)(you)(you)沒有(you)(you)(you)(you)夜班車(che)(che)?有(you)(you)(you)(you)...馬上要去韓(han)國(guo)玩了,在(zai)(zai)江南區(qu)服務公(gong)寓(yu)預定了...凌(ling)晨(chen)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)時(shi)(shi)候(hou)(hou),金(jin)邊(bian)(bian)機(ji)場(chang)去暹粒(li)(li)(li)有(you)(you)(you)(you)大(da)(da)(da)巴(ba)嗎(ma)?求(qiu)問關于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)仁川機(ji)場(chang)外的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)(da)(da)巴(ba)乘坐(zuo)流(liu)程客(ke)車(che)(che)專段號江西南昌縣坐(zuo)車(che)(che)去東莞寧(ning)波(bo)(bo)到烏鎮南郊客(ke)運站坐(zuo)尾氣(qi)(qi)(qi)。使(shi)用柴油的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)(da)(da)型車(che)(che)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)排(pai)放(fang)(fang)(fang)PM10的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)“重(zhong)犯(fan)”,包括大(da)(da)(da)公(gong)交(jiao)、各單位的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)班車(che)(che),以(yi)及大(da)(da)(da)型運輸卡車(che)(che)等。使(shi)用汽(qi)(qi)(qi)油的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)小型車(che)(che)雖然(ran)排(pai)放(fang)(fang)(fang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)態(tai)污(wu)(wu)(wu)染(ran)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu),比(bi)(bi)如(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)氮氧化物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)等,但(dan)(dan)碰(peng)上霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)天(tian)(tian)(tian),也很容易轉化為(wei)(wei)(wei)二(er)次(ci)顆(ke)粒(li)(li)(li)污(wu)(wu)(wu)染(ran)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu),加(jia)重(zhong)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)。其(qi)(qi)次(ci)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)北方(fang)到了冬季燒(shao)煤(mei)供暖所產(chan)(chan)生(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)廢(fei)(fei)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)。第(di)(di)三是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)業生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)排(pai)放(fang)(fang)(fang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)廢(fei)(fei)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)。比(bi)(bi)如(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)冶(ye)金(jin)、機(ji)電制造業的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)業窯爐(lu)與(yu)(yu)(yu)鍋(guo)爐(lu),還有(you)(you)(you)(you)大(da)(da)(da)量(liang)(liang)汽(qi)(qi)(qi)修噴漆、建(jian)材生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)窯爐(lu)燃燒(shao)排(pai)放(fang)(fang)(fang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)廢(fei)(fei)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)。第(di)(di)四是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)建(jian)筑工(gong)地和(he)(he)(he)道路交(jiao)通產(chan)(chan)生(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)揚(yang)塵(chen)。 霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)由大(da)(da)(da)量(liang)(liang)懸(xuan)(xuan)浮(fu)(fu)在(zai)(zai)近(jin)地面(mian)空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)微(wei)小水(shui)(shui)(shui)滴或(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)冰(bing)晶(jing)組(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)溶(rong)膠系(xi)統(tong),是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)近(jin)地面(mian)層空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)水(shui)(shui)(shui)汽(qi)(qi)(qi)凝(ning)結(jie)(jie)(jie)(或(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)凝(ning)華(hua)(hua))的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)產(chan)(chan)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)。霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)存在(zai)(zai)會降(jiang)(jiang)低(di)(di)(di)(di)空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)透明度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du),使(shi)能(neng)(neng)(neng)見(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)惡化,如(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)果目標(biao)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)水(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)(ping)能(neng)(neng)(neng)見(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)降(jiang)(jiang)低(di)(di)(di)(di)到1000米(mi)(mi)以(yi)內(nei),就(jiu)將(jiang)懸(xuan)(xuan)浮(fu)(fu)在(zai)(zai)近(jin)地面(mian)空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)水(shui)(shui)(shui)汽(qi)(qi)(qi)凝(ning)結(jie)(jie)(jie)(或(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)凝(ning)華(hua)(hua))物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)天(tian)(tian)(tian)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)現(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)象(xiang)稱(cheng)(cheng)為(wei)(wei)(wei)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(Fog);而(er)(er)將(jiang)目標(biao)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)水(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)(ping)能(neng)(neng)(neng)見(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)在(zai)(zai)1000-10000米(mi)(mi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)這(zhe)種(zhong)現(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)象(xiang)稱(cheng)(cheng)為(wei)(wei)(wei)輕(qing)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)或(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)靄(Mist)。形成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)時(shi)(shi)大(da)(da)(da)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)濕(shi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)應(ying)該是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)飽和(he)(he)(he)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(如(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)有(you)(you)(you)(you)大(da)(da)(da)量(liang)(liang)凝(ning)結(jie)(jie)(jie)核(he)存在(zai)(zai)時(shi)(shi),相(xiang)對(dui)濕(shi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)不(bu)(bu)(bu)一(yi)(yi)定達(da)到100%就(jiu)可(ke)能(neng)(neng)(neng)出(chu)現(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)飽和(he)(he)(he))。由于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)液態(tai)水(shui)(shui)(shui)或(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)冰(bing)晶(jing)組(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)散射的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)光(guang)與(yu)(yu)(yu)波(bo)(bo)長關系(xi)不(bu)(bu)(bu)大(da)(da)(da),因(yin)(yin)而(er)(er)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)看起(qi)來(lai)呈乳白(bai)(bai)色(se)或(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)青白(bai)(bai)色(se)。霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mái),也稱(cheng)(cheng)灰(hui)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(煙霞) 空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)灰(hui)塵(chen)、硫酸(suan)、硝酸(suan)、有(you)(you)(you)(you)機(ji)碳氫化合物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)等粒(li)(li)(li)子(zi)也能(neng)(neng)(neng)使(shi)大(da)(da)(da)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)混濁(zhuo),視(shi)野模(mo)糊(hu)并導(dao)致(zhi)能(neng)(neng)(neng)見(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)惡化,如(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)果水(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)(ping)能(neng)(neng)(neng)見(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)小于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)10000米(mi)(mi)時(shi)(shi),將(jiang)這(zhe)種(zhong)非水(shui)(shui)(shui)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)組(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)溶(rong)膠系(xi)統(tong)造成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)視(shi)程障礙(ai)(ai)稱(cheng)(cheng)為(wei)(wei)(wei)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(Haze)或(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)灰(hui)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(Dust-haze),香港(gang)天(tian)(tian)(tian)文臺稱(cheng)(cheng)煙霞(Haze)。霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)與(yu)(yu)(yu)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)區(qu)別在(zai)(zai)于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)發(fa)生(sheng)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)時(shi)(shi)相(xiang)對(dui)濕(shi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)不(bu)(bu)(bu)大(da)(da)(da),而(er)(er)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)相(xiang)對(dui)濕(shi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)飽和(he)(he)(he)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(如(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)有(you)(you)(you)(you)大(da)(da)(da)量(liang)(liang)凝(ning)結(jie)(jie)(jie)核(he)存在(zai)(zai)時(shi)(shi),相(xiang)對(dui)濕(shi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)不(bu)(bu)(bu)一(yi)(yi)定達(da)到100%就(jiu)可(ke)能(neng)(neng)(neng)出(chu)現(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)飽和(he)(he)(he))。一(yi)(yi)般相(xiang)對(dui)濕(shi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)小于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)80%時(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)(da)(da)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)混濁(zhuo)視(shi)野模(mo)糊(hu)導(dao)致(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)能(neng)(neng)(neng)見(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)惡化是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)造成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),相(xiang)對(dui)濕(shi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)大(da)(da)(da)于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)90%時(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)(da)(da)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)混濁(zhuo)視(shi)野模(mo)糊(hu)導(dao)致(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)能(neng)(neng)(neng)見(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)惡化是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)造成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),相(xiang)對(dui)濕(shi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)介于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)80-90%之(zhi)(zhi)間(jian)時(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)(da)(da)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)混濁(zhuo)視(shi)野模(mo)糊(hu)導(dao)致(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)能(neng)(neng)(neng)見(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)惡化是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)和(he)(he)(he)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)混合物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)共同造成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),但(dan)(dan)其(qi)(qi)主(zhu)要成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)分(fen)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)。霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)厚度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)比(bi)(bi)較(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)厚,可(ke)達(da)1-3公(gong)里(li)(li)左(zuo)右。霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)與(yu)(yu)(yu)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)、云不(bu)(bu)(bu)一(yi)(yi)樣,與(yu)(yu)(yu)晴空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)區(qu)之(zhi)(zhi)間(jian)沒有(you)(you)(you)(you)明顯的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)邊(bian)(bian)界,霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)粒(li)(li)(li)子(zi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)分(fen)布比(bi)(bi)較(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)均勻,而(er)(er)且(qie)灰(hui)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)粒(li)(li)(li)子(zi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)尺度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)比(bi)(bi)較(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)小,從0.001微(wei)米(mi)(mi)到10微(wei)米(mi)(mi),平(ping)(ping)(ping)均直(zhi)(zhi)徑(jing)大(da)(da)(da)約(yue)在(zai)(zai)1-2微(wei)米(mi)(mi)左(zuo)右,肉眼看不(bu)(bu)(bu)到空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)飄浮(fu)(fu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)顆(ke)粒(li)(li)(li)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)。由于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)灰(hui)塵(chen)、硫酸(suan)、硝酸(suan)等粒(li)(li)(li)子(zi)組(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai),其(qi)(qi)散射波(bo)(bo)長較(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)長的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)光(guang)比(bi)(bi)較(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)多,因(yin)(yin)而(er)(er)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)看起(qi)來(lai)呈黃色(se)或(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)橙灰(hui)色(se)。   霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)和(he)(he)(he)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)相(xiang)同之(zhi)(zhi)處都是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)視(shi)程障礙(ai)(ai)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)。但(dan)(dan)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)與(yu)(yu)(yu)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)形成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)原(yuan)因(yin)(yin)和(he)(he)(he)條件(jian)(jian)卻有(you)(you)(you)(you)很大(da)(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差別。霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)浮(fu)(fu)游在(zai)(zai)空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)(da)(da)量(liang)(liang)微(wei)小水(shui)(shui)(shui)滴或(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)冰(bing)晶(jing),形成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)條件(jian)(jian)要具(ju)備較(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)水(shui)(shui)(shui)汽(qi)(qi)(qi)飽和(he)(he)(he)因(yin)(yin)素。出(chu)現(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)時(shi)(shi)空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)相(xiang)對(dui)濕(shi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)常(chang)達(da)100%或(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)接(jie)(jie)近(jin)100%。霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)有(you)(you)(you)(you)隨(sui)著空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)濕(shi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)日變化而(er)(er)出(chu)現(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)早晚較(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)常(chang)見(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)或(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)加(jia)濃,白(bai)(bai)天(tian)(tian)(tian)相(xiang)對(dui)減(jian)輕(qing)甚至消(xiao)失的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)現(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)象(xiang)。出(chu)現(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)時(shi)(shi)有(you)(you)(you)(you)效水(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)(ping)能(neng)(neng)(neng)見(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)小于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)1KM。當有(you)(you)(you)(you)效水(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)(ping)能(neng)(neng)(neng)見(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)1-10KM時(shi)(shi)稱(cheng)(cheng)為(wei)(wei)(wei)輕(qing)霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)。“‘霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)’和(he)(he)(he)‘霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)’實際上是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)有(you)(you)(you)(you)區(qu)別的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。”國(guo)家(jia)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)候(hou)(hou)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心氣(qi)(qi)(qi)候(hou)(hou)系(xi)統(tong)監測(ce)(ce)室高(gao)級工(gong)程師(shi)孫(sun)冷指出(chu),霧(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)指大(da)(da)(da)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)因(yin)(yin)懸(xuan)(xuan)浮(fu)(fu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)水(shui)(shui)(shui)汽(qi)(qi)(qi)凝(ning)結(jie)(jie)(jie)、能(neng)(neng)(neng)見(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)低(di)(di)(di)(di)于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)1公(gong)里(li)(li)時(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)天(tian)(tian)(tian)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)現(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)象(xiang);而(er)(er)灰(hui)霾(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)形成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)主(zhu)要是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)懸(xuan)(xuan)浮(fu)(fu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)(da)(da)量(liang)(liang)微(wei)粒(li)(li)(li)和(he)(he)(he)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)象(xiang)條件(jian)(jian)共同作(zuo)用的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)結(jie)(jie)(jie)果,其(qi)(qi)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)因(yin)(yin)有(you)(you)(you)(you)三:——在(zai)(zai)水(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)(ping)方(fang)向靜風(feng)現(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)象(xiang)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)多。城市(shi)(shi)里(li)(li)大(da)(da)(da)樓越建(jian)越高(gao),阻擋和(he)(he)(he)摩擦作(zuo)用使(shi)風(feng)流(liu)經城區(qu)時(shi)(shi)明顯減(jian)弱。靜風(feng)現(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)象(xiang)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)多,不(bu)(bu)(bu)利于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)大(da)(da)(da)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)懸(xuan)(xuan)浮(fu)(fu)微(wei)粒(li)(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)擴散稀釋,容易在(zai)(zai)城區(qu)和(he)(he)(he)近(jin)郊區(qu)周邊(bian)(bian)積累;——垂(chui)直(zhi)(zhi)方(fang)向上出(chu)現(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)逆溫(wen)。逆溫(wen)層好比(bi)(bi)一(yi)(yi)個(ge)鍋(guo)蓋(gai)覆蓋(gai)在(zai)(zai)城市(shi)(shi)上空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong),這(zhe)種(zhong)高(gao)空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)溫(wen)比(bi)(bi)低(di)(di)(di)(di)空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)溫(wen)更高(gao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)逆溫(wen)現(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)象(xiang),使(shi)得大(da)(da)(da)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)層低(di)(di)(di)(di)空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)垂(chui)直(zhi)(zhi)運動受到限制,空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)懸(xuan)(xuan)浮(fu)(fu)微(wei)粒(li)(li)(li)難以(yi)向高(gao)空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)飄散而(er)(er)被(bei)阻滯(zhi)在(zai)(zai)低(di)(di)(di)(di)空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)和(he)(he)(he)近(jin)地面(mian)。——空(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)懸(xuan)(xuan)浮(fu)(fu)顆(ke)粒(li)(li)(li)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)。隨(sui)著城市(shi)(shi)人(ren)口的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)長和(he)(he)(he)工(gong)業發(fa)展、機(ji)動車(che)(che)輛猛增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng),污(wu)(wu)(wu)染(ran)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)排(pai)放(fang)(fang)(fang)和(he)(he)(he)懸(xuan)(xuan)浮(fu)(fu)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)大(da)(da)(da)量(liang)(liang)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加(jia),直(zhi)(zhi)接(jie)(jie)導(dao)致(zhi)了能(neng)(neng)(neng)見(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)降(jiang)(jiang)低(di)(di)(di)(di)。